With this act, the Chinese received similar legal treatment to blacks before them who Canada also had specifically excluded from immigration on the basis of race.(This was formalised in 1911 by Prime Minister Sir Wilfrid Laurier who in Sub-section (c) of Section 38 of the Immigration Act called blacks "unsuitable" for Canada.) During the next 25 years, more and more laws against the Chinese were passed. Many Chinese opened their own restaurants and laundry businesses.The Chinese were the only ethnic group that had to pay such a tax.In 1923, the federal Liberal government of William Lyon Mackenzie King banned Chinese immigration with the passage of the Chinese Immigration Act of 1923, although numerous exemptions for businessmen, clergy, students and others did not end immigration entirely.On June 22, 2006, Prime Minister Stephen Harper delivered a message of redress in the House of Commons, calling it a "grave injustice".Some educated Chinese arrived in Canada during the war as refugees.They comprise a subgroup of East Asian Canadians which is a further subgroup of Asian Canadians.Demographic research tends to include immigrants from Mainland China, Hong Kong, and Macau as well as overseas Chinese who have immigrated from South East Asia and South America into the broadly defined Chinese Canadian category as Stats Can refers to Taiwanese Canadians as a separate group apart from Chinese Canadians.
Canada was slow to lift the restrictions against the Chinese-Canadians and grant them full rights as Canadian citizens.Most could not bring the rest of their families, including immediate relatives, due to government restrictions and enormous processing fees.They established Chinatowns and societies in undesirable sections of the cities, such as Dupont Street (now East Pender) in Vancouver, which had been the focus of the early city's red-light district until Chinese merchants took over the area from the 1890s onwards.Their willingness to endure hardship for low wages enraged fellow non-Chinese workers who thought they were unnecessarily complicating the labour market situations.
From the passage of the Chinese Immigration Act in 1885, the Canadian government began to charge a substantial head tax for each Chinese person trying to immigrate to Canada.
Since the mid-20th century, most new Chinese Canadians come from university-educated families, who of still consider quality education an essential value.